A-Z of conditions

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is when the kidneys stop working over a short period of time – a few days or a few weeks. It is sometimes called acute kidney failure (AKF) or acute renal failure (ARF).

Learn the basics about food allergies, their symptoms and how they are diagnosed. And if you have itchy eyes, a sneezy nose, wheezy chest or queasy stomach, you might have an allergy: find out more

Anaphylaxis (pronounced ana-fill-ax-is) is a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. Learn more about what you can do to avoid having an anaphylactic reaction or what to do if someone else if having a severe allergic reaction.

Arthritis doesn’t just affect the elderly. Find out more about conditions affecting the bones and joints of children and young people; to hear the experiences of a young person with arthritis, click here. The Centre for Adolescent Rheumatology and the Children’s Chronic Arthritis Association provide extremely useful information for young people.

Don’t let having asthma stop you living your life. Learn more about asthma and find ways to help you stay well.

Brain tumours are quite complex - at present, over 130 different types of 'high grade'(cancerous) or 'low grade' (non-cancerous) brain tumours are known. Find key information about brain tumours in young people including symptoms, diagnosis and treatments, and read advice on living with, or caring someone with, a brain tumour.

7 young people are diagnosed with cancer every day in the UK. You don’t have to face cancer alone - find out about cancer types, treatments and living with cancer as a teen or young adult. This information has been written specifically for you and reviewed by other young people with cancer. Hear the stories of other young people with cancer.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a lifelong condition. The kidneys gradually stop working as well as they should. This usually happens over many years.

The Pain Toolkit is for people who live with persistent pain and Healthcare teams who support them. It helps people all over the world self manage persistent pain.

There are many young people in the UK who are born with a cleft lip or palate. Some of them have shared their stories about everything from school to surgery.

Growing up with coeliac disease, especially in your teenage years, can have its challenges, especially as you eat out more with friends. Don’t be embarrassed about having coeliac disease; it’s part of you and your friends will understand.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the UK's most common life-threatening inherited diseases. Cystic fibrosis is caused by a defective gene. As a result, the internal organs, especially the lungs and digestive system, become clogged with thick sticky mucus resulting in chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs and difficulty digesting food. Find out more…

Being a teenager is hard enough, without having Type 1 diabetes. Find out more about successfully living with Type 1 diabetes and getting through your teenage years.

Find out how to manage your pen/pump when unwell or when your blood sugar is low click here

Listen to the experiences of young people with diabetes by clicking here. Or, to read a diabetes-inspired comic click here

‘Why do I have eczema?’ is a question asked by a lot of the young people with eczema. Find out more about eczema or listen to the experiences of other young people with eczema.

If you’re a teenager with epilepsy, you probably have all sorts of questions about how epilepsy could affect your life. For example, will you be able to go on holiday with friends, go to concerts and clubs and drink alcohol? Or maybe you have a friend, brother or sister who has epilepsy and you just want to understand more about it. Or you can listen to the experiences of a young person with epilepsy by clicking here. Young epilepsy provides great help and support.

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and IgM nephropathy cause nephrotic syndrome. This causes swelling in the body, especially in their face, legs and feet.

Haematuriameans there is blood in the urine (wee). If there is a lot of blood, the urine may be red or dark brown. In most children, haematuria is not serious. In some children, it is a sign that there is a problem with their kidney and these children may need special treatment. Find out more…

In haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), the small blood vessels inside the kidneys are damaged. There are changes in the blood and the kidneys stop working properly.

By the time you are a teenager, you may already be used to living with a bleeding disorder. However not all people with bleeding disorders are diagnosed earlier on in life, and a bleeding disorder may be entirely new for you. The information here should be able to reassure you about your bleeding disorder, and let you get on with the enjoyment of being a teenager.

If you have a congenital heart condition, you might feel like you don't want to know every detail because it scares you. In fact you're not alone - many adults feel the same way. Find out more…

Headaches are common in young people .

See links for advice on headaches and when to ask for help.

NHS advice

NICE guidelines


Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a condition that affects different parts of the body. Tiny blood vessels in the body become inflamed or swollen.

It’s difficult being a young person with HIV but you’re not alone. Hear the experiences of other young people living with HIV. Find ways of accessing local support as well as the Body & Soul Beyond Boundaries programme.

Click here to watch a video from the BBC called HIV Positive: Seriously, you can't catch it from kissing.

If you’re a teenager or young adult affected by hydrocephalus, it’s important to remember that you’re not alone. You’ll find useful information to help you overcome the different challenges you may face.

Hypertension means that your blood pressure is too high. In some children, hypertension can be a serious condition. It can increase the risk of getting other diseases, especially if the hypertension continues into their adult years. Find out more…

Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis are the two main forms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, affecting more than 300,000 people in the UK. Yet it is largely a hidden disease, and one that causes stigma, fear and isolation – it’s thought that many people with the condition go undiagnosed and suffer in silence. It doesn’t have to be like this. Learn more….

Don’t let a medical condition change your life. Change the way you deal with it – by living as best you can with the security of a Medi band or Medic alert medical ID bracelet or wristband.

Climb is the leading patient organisation for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, supporting thousands of families worldwide.

Bladder problems are not a subject that is openly discussed, hence there is a general lack of public knowledge on what it is like to have Mitrofanoff. Mitrofanoff Support offers emotional support and reassurance to anyone who may be about to have, or already has a Mitrofanoff and the people closest to them.

A multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a kidney that has not developed normally in the womb. Instead of a working kidney, there is a bundle of cysts, which are like sacs filled with liquid. Find out more

Living with a neuromuscular condition can be a steep learning curve, but support is available. Find out more…

In nephrotic syndrome, the kidneys leak too much protein into the urine, leading to a drop in the levels of protein in the blood. This causes swelling in the body, especially in the face, legs and feet. Find out more… About half of children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) have frequent relapses. This means that although the nephrotic syndrome gets better with steroids, it keeps coming back in a short space of time. Learn more about frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a condition that causes lumps called neurofibromas to grow on the covering of nerves. Although doctors sometimes call the lumps tumours, they are not cancer. This information sheets offers you some facts and advice to help you.

PIGN causes inflammation (swelling) in the kidneys. Young people with PIGN have blood and protein in their urine, and may have swelling in their body, especially around their face and legs. Find out more…

If you are a young person with a primary immunodeficiency, there are probably loads of questions you’d like to know the answers to, things you maybe feel a bit embarrassed to ask about or you simply don’t know who to ask. Learn more here…

Proteinuria means there is an abnormal amount of protein in the urine (wee). Normally there is very little protein that is lost in the urine. Find out more…

Renal dysplasia (or kidney dysplasia) means that a kidney does not fully develop in the womb.The affected kidney does not have normal function – which means that it does not work as well as a normal kidney. It is usually smaller than usual, and may have some cysts, which are like sacs filled with liquid. Find out more…

Renal hypoplasia (or kidney hypoplasia) means that part of a kidney does not fully develop in the womb. The kidney may only be slightly smaller than usual or it may be tiny. Because of its size, it may not work as well as a normal-sized kidney. Find out more…

Advice on what you can do if you have scoliosis or if you have just been diagnosed with it. Find out more…

Advice for young people living with sickle cell disease. You are not alone. Click here for more information.

Spina bifida literally means ‘split spine’. A fault in the development of the spinal cord and surrounding bones (vertebrae) leaves a gap or split in the spine. The spinal cord has not formed properly, and may also be damaged. Find out more

Information all all types of syncope :


Thalassaemia is a complex condition affecting the blood that requires constant monitoring and treatment. However, it is no longer just a disease of childhood; with our current level of knowledge, of treatment, of support and care there is no reason for a young person with thalassaemia to not reach their full potential.

An estimated 1 million people worldwide have TSC. Some will be diagnosed with TSC very early in life whilst others may not be diagnosed until later childhood, adolescence or adulthood. Find out more…

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection that may cause you pain when you pee. Sometimes it can result in a kidney infection. Find out more…

Von Willebrand disease is the most common type of bleeding disorder: it’s estimated that around 1% of the world population may be affected. It affects the blood’s ability to clot and can cause symptoms such as easy bruising, nosebleeds, and heavy periods. It may also be hard to stop bleeding after injury or surgery. Find out more…

Improving the physical and emotional health and wellbeing of expectant mothers, infants, children and young people throughout Aneurin Bevan University Health Board Area.

(N.B: The Family and Therapies team at ABUHB is NOT responsible for the content on the webpage links that we refer to in our resource sections and linked information to external sites. All information was accurate and appropriate at the time the webpage was created.)

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