What is Autism?

Having an Autistic Spectrum Condition (ASC) means that the person has a different way of understanding other people and the world around them. ASC is a lifelong developmental disorder, not an illness or a disease so there is no ‘cure’ but there are many ways that difficulties can be managed.

Here are some of the things you might see, in various combinations and from mild to severe, in people who have ASC:

Difficulties with communication

  • Taking what people say literally (thinking people mean exactly what they say)
  • Not understanding jokes or sarcasm
  • Preferring facts and logic
  • Finding it hard to understand facial expressions, tone of voice and gestures.
  • Only feeling comfortable when talking about topics they are interested in
  • Repetitive in what they say

Difficulties with socialising and interacting with other people

  • Not wanting to make eye contact
  • Feeling awkward and not knowing what to say or do in social situations
  • Difficulties making and keeping friends and romantic relationships
  • Preferring to be alone and only doing activities they feel comfortable to do
  • Finding it hard to take turns when playing games
  • Not liking to be touched or comforted by other people
  • Difficulty with seeing things from other people’s point of view

Difficulties with imagination

  • People with ASC can struggle with make believe play or storytelling
  • It can also be hard to imagine what other people might be thinking or feeling

Special interests

  • Having special interests that they invest their time and energy into
  • Becoming very knowledgeable about a specific topic and spending a lot of time involved in the topic

Sensory differences

People with ASC may be overly sensitive to sounds, smells, touch, pain or light, finding these things uncomfortable, frightening or painful. Some people do not appear sensitive to these things at all.


People with ASC can find change and transition (going from one thing to another) hard, so they prefer familiar and strict routines.

These differences that people with ASC may experience can make everyday life overwhelming.

  • Often people can feel worried and stressed by everyday activities such as going to school, meeting people and trying new things.
  • Difficulties with social communication and interaction and the differences in their interests, strengths and talents can make them feel left out and misunderstood by other people, which can lead to problems with low mood and low self- esteem

top tips

  1. It is important to understand that people with ASC are individuals with thoughts and feelings, talents and strengths just like those without ASC. They deserve the same level of love, care and respect.
  2. ASC is relatively common and it is likely that you know someone who has ASC.
  3. People who have ASC may experience the difficulties outlined above in different ways and to different levels. It is important you get to know the individual in order to best help and support them. If you have ASC, it can be helpful to let people know what you find hard so they know how best to help and support you.
  4. As everyday life activities can be challenging and cause stress and anxiety, some people find it helpful to learn ways of managing their anxiety. Check the help section on our website for ‘Anxiety’ and ‘Depression’ for top tips, websites and apps.
  5. If you have a diagnosis of ASC or you are waiting for an assessment to see whether you have ASC, it can be helpful for you and the people who support you to use the techniques and strategies known to help people with ASC manage the difficulties they are experiencing. Click on the website and video links below for more information, advice and support.


What is autism? - credit: The National Autistic Society (video 1 of 2)

Content: Hampshire Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service

Improving the physical and emotional health and wellbeing of expectant mothers, infants, children and young people throughout Aneurin Bevan University Health Board Area.

(N.B: The Family and Therapies team at ABUHB is NOT responsible for the content on the webpage links that we refer to in our resource sections and linked information to external sites. All information was accurate and appropriate at the time the webpage was created.)

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